How did Seattle react to the Brown v. Board of Education case?
In 1950, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) worked to reduce discrimination in public schools and filed lawsuits on behalf of plaintiffs in states such as South Carolina, Virginia and Delaware. Read the article below by seattleducation.com on ‘How did Seattle react to the Brown v. Board of Education case?‘ For more information on this case:
What is Board of Education?
A board of education, school board, or school board is the board of directors or board of trustees of a school, local school district, or equivalent institution.
An elected council determines education policy in a small area, such as a city, county, state, or county.
Typically, the board of trustees has authority with a larger organization, such as the high-ranking state department of education.
The name of this board is also commonly used to refer to the school system under its control.
The government department that administered education in the United Kingdom prior to the creation of the Department of Education was formerly known as the Board of Education.
Separate but equal doctrine in Brown to Board of Education case
In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, as long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Constitutionally approved laws that prevented African Americans from sharing buses, schools and other public transportation with whites – known as “Jim Crow” laws – and established the principle of “separate” would continue. separate but equal” over the next six decades.
But by the early 1950s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was working to challenge segregation laws in public schools and filed lawsuits on behalf of plaintiffs in states such as South Carolina, Virginia and Delaware.
In the case that would become most famous, a plaintiff named Oliver Brown filed a class action lawsuit against the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas, in 1951, after his daughter Linda Brown was disqualified. White primary school. .
In his lawsuit, Brown claimed that schools for black children are not equal to white schools and that this segregation would violate the so-called “equal protection clause” of the Fourteenth Amendment, according to which no state may “deny any person within the purview of equal protection of the law” .
The lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court in Kansas, which agreed that segregation in public schools had “negative effects on children of color” and contributed to a “feeling of inferiority,” but still maintained the “segregation but equality” principle.
Brown vs. Education Commission Resolution 1952
When Brown’s case and four other cases of school segregation were first brought before the Supreme Court in 1952, the court combined them into a single case under the name Brown v. Topeka Education.
Thurgood Marshall, president of the NAACP Foundation for Legal Defense and Education, is the plaintiffs’ lead attorney. (Thirteen years later, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Marshall as the first black Supreme Court justice.)
At first, the judges were divided over how to run the segregated schools, with Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson opining that Plessy’s decision must be correct.
But in September 1953, before Brown’s lawsuit against the Board of Education was heard, Vinson died, and President Dwight D. Eisenhower replaced him with Earl Warren, then-governor of California.
Demonstrating the skill and determination of great politicians, the new chief justice succeeded in delivering a unanimous ruling against apartheid the following year.
In a May 17, 1954 resolution, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education, the principle of ‘separate but equal’ has no place, because separate schools are ‘inherently unequal.”‘
As a result, the court ruled that the plaintiffs were “denied the equal protection of the Fourteenth Amendment.”
Little Rock Nine and the rule of President Eisenhower
In its ruling, the Supreme Court did not specify exactly how the school should be incorporated, but it did ask for further arguments on the matter.
In May 1955, the court issued a second opinion in the case (known as Brown v. Board of Education II), which governs future segregation cases before the federal courts. It directed district courts and school boards to conduct the dismissal “with all intention of expeditiousness.”
Although well-intentioned, the court’s action effectively opened the door to circumventing judicial and political discrimination in the region.
While Kansas and many other states acted in accordance with the ruling, many school and local officials in the South defied it.
In one prime example, Arkansas Governor Orval Phobos called on the state’s National Guard to bar black students from attending Little Rock High School in 1957.
After a period of tension, President Eisenhower deployed federal forces, and nine students—known as “Little Rock Nine”—managed to enter Central High School under armed guard.
Impact of Brown’s case against the Board of Education
Although the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Council did not achieve segregation against schools alone, it (and steadfast resistance to it throughout the South) stimulated the nascent civil rights movement in the United States.
In 1955, a year after Brown decided to sue the Board of Education, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the Montgomery, Alabama bus.
Her arrest led to a bus boycott in Montgomery and led to boycotts, sit-ins, and other demonstrations (many led by Martin Luther King, Jr.), in a movement that would eventually lead to the overthrow of Jim Crow laws across the South.
The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, backed by the Department of Justice, began the process of apartheid in earnest.
The landmark Civil Rights Act was followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.
In 1976, the Supreme Court issued another landmark decision in the Runyon v McCrary case, ruling that even non-denominational private schools that refused to admit students on the basis of race violated federal civil rights laws.
By repealing the “separate but equal” principle, the court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education sets a legal precedent that will be used to overturn laws that enforce discrimination in schools and other public facilities.
But despite its proven impact, the landmark ruling failed to achieve its primary mission of integrating the nation’s public schools.
Today, more than 60 years after Brown v. Board of Education, debate continues over how to combat racial disparities in the nation’s school system, which is largely dependent on population patterns and demographics. country.
Sources of the Historical Case Brown v. Board of Education
- History – Brown v. Commission on Re-licensing of Education, United States Court.
- Brown v. Board of Education, The Civil Rights Movement: Volume One (Salem Press).
- Cass Sunstein, “Was Brown Important?” The New Yorker. May 3, 2004.
- Brown sues Board of Education, PBS.org.
- Richard Rothstein Brown v. Board of Directors at 60, Economic Policy Institute, April 17, 2014.